Instantized Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA): 3,000 mg
Branched-chain amino acids are a group of three essential amino acids that include leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are considered essential, meaning they cannot be synthesized by the human body, and therefore must be consumed through diet or supplementation. “Branched-chain” refers to the chemical structure of BCAAs, which are found in protein-rich foods such as eggs, meat and dairy products. Unlike other amino acids, BCAA are used primarily by skeletal muscle, making up 30-35 percent of the muscle tissue itself. These amino acids are important for muscle growth and retention and in the regulation of many cellular processes. As aging occurs, the body’s ability to build and retain muscle tissue or size is reduced, which can result in weakness and frailty. Research has shown that supplementation with BCAA promotes muscle retention in older adults. Additionally, it has been shown that supplementation of BCAA during exercise supports muscle protein synthesis and inhibits protein catabolism (breakdown) and muscle fatigue. Studies have also indicated that BCAAs improve mental concentration and reduce and delay mental fatigue. Though the exact mechanism by which BCAA affect mental performance is not known, it is hypothesized that by increasing blood levels of BCAA, the transport of tryptophan (which causes relaxation/sleepiness) into the brain is balanced. By using instantized BCAAs within the isotonic system, there is a quicker dissolution and increased bioavailability. *
Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®): 25 mg
Pycnogenol is a natural plant extract from the bark of the maritime pine tree, which grows exclusively along the coast of southwest France in Les Landes de Gascogne. This unspoiled and natural forest environment is the unique source of pine bark. Pycnogenol is one of the most researched ingredients in the natural product marketplace. Published findings have demonstrated Pycnogenol’s wide array of beneficial effects on the body. Pine bark extract is an all-natural combination of procyanidins, bioflavonoids and organic acids.
The extract has three basic properties — it is a powerful antioxidant, selectively binds to collagen and elastin, and promotes the normal production of endothelial nitric oxide, which promotes the normal dilation of dilate blood vessels.
As one of the most potent natural scavengers of free radicals, Pycnogenol combats many aggressive free radicals before they cause oxidative stress to vital organs. Its super-antioxidant capabilities help support healthy blood platelet activity, support healthy blood glucose levels, reduce mild menstrual cramping and abdominal pain, maintain joint flexibility, promote cardiovascular health, promote healthy sperm quality, maintain healthy cholesterol levels and support a healthy complexion. Additionally, numerous studies have examined the anti-inflammatory properties of Pycnogenol. It has been shown to help maintain the body’s natural defenses by inhibiting overactive inflammatory responses associated with the normal aging process. Studies have also demonstrated Pycnogenol’s potential to inhibit the activation of NF-kappa B and AP-1, both of which are pro-inflammatory mediators. *
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): 60 mg
Vitamin C is a multi-faceted nutrient primarily known for its antioxidant benefits and strong role in immune health. In addition to these widely known benefits, Vitamin C also supports the normal repair, healing, and maintenance of healthy connective tissues such as collagen, elastin, fibronectin, proteoglycans, bone matrix and elastin-associated fibrillin. It is also a cofactor for dopamine production.
Vitamin C also helps support cardiovascular health in a few different ways. It assists in promoting normal levels of cholesterol and triglyceride levels and in maintaining normal blood pressure and platelet activity. It also protects against LDL peroxidation by scavenging free radicals. Vitamin C helps maintain endothelial cell function by promoting the synthesis of nitric oxide (also known as NO and EDRF for endothelium-derived relaxing factor). Vitamin C may promote normal modulation of prostaglandin synthesis, which in turn promotes normal vasodilatory activity. As observed above, vitamin C helps maintain nitric oxide levels and supports its ability to preserve the integrity of the blood vessels. There is an indication that vitamin C supports endothelial-dependent vasodilation. Additionally, vitamin C helps moderate healthy iron absorption, transport and storage.
A lack of vitamin C can cause general fatigue, and because the body does not manufacture or store Vitamin C, it is important to acquire it through diet and supplementation. *
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol): 10 mcg
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in some foods and endogenously produced when sunlight strikes the skin and activates its synthesis in the body. Food sources of vitamin D are fortified foods – such as breakfast cereal – egg yolks, cod liver oil, and fatty fish such as salmon, sardines, herring and mackerel.
Vitamin D supports the synthesis of calcium-binding proteins, which in turn promotes normal calcium absorption and retention. Vitamin D also promotes the normal formation of bone, normal bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Vitamin D deficiency can be caused by factors such as lack of exposure to sunlight, reduced skin synthesis of vitamin D, lower dietary intake, impaired intestinal absorption, and reduced metabolism to active forms of vitamin D by the kidneys, all of which increase with aging. Deficiency has been linked to numerous health concerns and insufficient levels of this vitamin are associated with weak bones and muscle weakness. In addition to promoting strong bones, vitamin D also has other roles in health, including supporting the body’s normal modulation of neuromuscular function and immune function. Vitamin D has been shown to support immune-modulation, and it is thought that supplementation promotes immune health by promoting the body’s normal regulation of T-cell function. In reference to cellular health, Vitamin D supports the modulation of many genes that are responsible for encoding proteins that regulate normal cell cycle activity. Vitamin D levels have been strongly correlated to healthy cells. Lastly, through its interaction with VDR (vitamin D receptor), vitamin D supports the healthy expression of the gene encoding renin – an enzyme secreted from the kidney that controls blood pressure – thus helping to maintain healthy blood pressure. *
Thiamin (thiamin HCl): 2 mg
Thiamin plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism and nerve function, and it is used by cells to form the fuel that our bodies run on. Thiamin is required for a healthy nervous system, and to promote the normal production of the acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) – neurotransmitters which have an important role in muscle function. Additionally, thiamin increases energy and supports the digestive process. *
Riboflavin (riboflavin-5-phosphate): 1.7 mg
Riboflavin serves as a co-enzyme, working with other B vitamins. It promotes healthy red blood cell formation, supports the nervous system, respiration, antibody production and normal human growth. It supports healthy skin, nails, hair growth and promotes normal thyroid activity. Riboflavin plays a crucial role in turning food into energy as a part of the electron transport chain, driving cellular energy at the molecular level. Riboflavin can be useful for pregnant or lactating women, as well as athletes due to their increased caloric needs. Riboflavin aids in the breakdown of fats while functioning as a cofactor or helper in activating B6 and folic acid. Riboflavin is water-soluble and cannot be stored by the body in significant amounts – it must be replenished daily. Under some conditions, riboflavin can act as an antioxidant. The riboflavin coenzymes are also important for the transformation of vitamin B6 and folic acid into their active forms and they promote the normal conversion of tryptophan into niacin. *
Niacin (niacinamide): 20 mg NE – (HH System)
Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for many aspects of health, growth and reproduction. Niacin promotes the normal functioning of the digestive system, skin and nerves. It is important for the conversion of food to energy, working with thiamin and riboflavin to support the release of energy from carbohydrates. In addition, similar to vitamin B6 and folic acid, niacin helps support the body’s normal renewal of tissues. Niacin is found in dairy products, poultry, fish, lean meats, nuts and eggs, as well as legumes and enriched breads and cereals. *
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5-phosphate): 6 mg
Pyridoxal-5-phosphate is the active form of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 supports numerous metabolic pathways in the body and is a co-factor required for protein and amino acid metabolism and helps maintain proper fluid balance. When taken with folic acid, vitamin B6 has been shown to help maintain normal plasma levels of homocysteine, which supports normal cardiovascular health. It also assists in the maintenance of healthy red and white blood cells and is required for hemoglobin synthesis.
Vitamin B6 also supports the normal synthesis of neurotransmitters in brain and peripheral nerve cells. It has been recommended as a nutrient to support mood and normal nerve conduction. Vitamin B6 also supports the normal production of glutathione – an antioxidant naturally produced in the liver.
Some athletic supplements include vitamin B6 because it promotes the conversion of glycogen to glucose for energy in muscle tissue. Poultry, fish, whole grains and bananas are the main dietary sources of vitamin B6. *
Folate (folic acid): 240 mcg DFE
Folic acid is mainly found in fruits and vegetables. Dark, leafy greens, oranges, orange juice, beans, peas and Brewer’s yeast are the best sources. Folic acid plays a key role by boosting the benefits of B12 supplementation. These two B vitamins work together in maintaining normal red blood cells. Folic acid assists in the normal utilization of amino acids and proteins, as well as constructs the material for DNA and RNA synthesis. Scientific studies have found that when working in tandem with folic acid, B12 can promote normal homocysteine levels. This works toward supporting a healthy cardiovascular and nervous system. *
Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin): 12 mcg
Methylcobalamin is one of the naturally occurring forms of vitamin B12 found in the human body. The liver must convert cyanocobalamin, the form of B12 most commonly used in supplements, into methylcobalamin before it can be properly utilized by the body; methylcobalamin is more effective than non-active forms of vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12, when ingested, is stored in the liver and other tissues for later use. It supports the maintenance of cells, especially those of the nervous system, bone marrow and intestinal tract. Vitamin B12 is important in homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine is an amino acid that is formed within the body, and normal homocysteine levels are important for maintaining cardiovascular health. Folate and B12, in their active coenzyme form, help to maintain healthy blood levels of homocysteine.
Vitamin B12 also promotes normal conversion of sulfur-containing compounds to glutathione, a powerful antioxidant in the body, thus B12 provides strong antioxidant defense and combats free radicals. Additionally, it helps to maintain energy levels as it plays a vital role in the Kreb’s energy cycle. Vitamin B12 is naturally found in animal products, including fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and milk products. *
Biotin: 300 mcg
Biotin, a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, supports healthy cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. It plays a role in the citric acid cycle, the process in which biochemical energy is generated during aerobic respiration or exercise. Biotin not only assists in various metabolic chemical conversions, but also supports the normal transfer of carbon dioxide and is helpful in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. *
Pantothenic Acid (D-calcium pantothenate): 20 mg
Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin involved in energy production and the formation of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is the “chief neurotransmitter” of the parasympathetic (involuntary) nervous system, a kind of “business as usual” system that keeps the basic functions of your body working as they should. Pantothenic acid works together with thiamin, riboflavin and niacin to make ATP, the fuel our bodies run on. It also promotes the normal production, transport, and release of energy from fats, and promotes the normal the secretion of hormones. *
Magnesium (magnesium oxide): 100 mg
Magnesium, an essential mineral, is required for release of energy and it promotes the normal regulation of body temperature and proper nerve function, it helps the body handle stress, and it promotes a healthy metabolism. Magnesium also promotes cardiovascular health by supporting normal platelet activity and helping to maintain normal cholesterol levels, and works together with calcium to promote the normal regulation of the heart and blood pressure.
Magnesium supports a number of other metabolic pathways including protein and fatty acid formation, B vitamin activation, muscle relaxation, blood clotting and formation of ATP, and works with calcium and vitamin D to maintain strong bones. Foods rich in magnesium include green leafy vegetables such as spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds and whole grains. *
Potassium (potassium bicarbonate): 300 mg
Potassium is an essential micromineral that plays a role in a wide variety of biochemical and physiological processes. It helps to maintain a healthy electrolyte balance in the body, promotes normal synthesis of glycogen and proteins, and supports the proper release of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates during metabolization. Potassium also promotes the normal elimination of wastes and generally contributes to a sense of well-being. Additionally, it contributes to the Isotonix® advantage supporting healthy fluid balance and exchange. Foods rich in potassium include fresh vegetables and fruits such as bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, avocado, raw spinach, cabbage and celery. *