Riboflavin (5-Phosphate) 4 mg
Riboflavin, is a water soluble vitamin that's primary function is as a coenzyme to support metabolic processes in the body. It promotes healthy red cell formation, nervous system function and also acts as an antioxidant. Another key function of the vitamin is in the production of energy, where it acts as part of the electron transport chain that produces cellular energy. In the mitochondrial electron transport chain, vitamin B2 is an intermediate hydrogen acceptor of foodstuffs, and then passes the electrons onto the cytochrome system, where the cellular energy is produced.
Requirements for vitamin B2 are associated with calorie intake, because with an increase food intake your body also needs an increase of vitamin B2 to carry out the metabolic processes that will convert the food into usable energy. Nutritional inaccuracy is a common cause of vitamin B2 deficiency, which can occur in the elderly. Foods that are rich in the vitamin B2 are organ meats, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt, leafy, green vegetables, and whole grains.
Calcium 750 mg (Carbonate, Lactate, Phosphate, Sulfate, Citrate)
The highest concentration of calcium is found in milk. Other foods rich in calcium include vegetables such as collard greens, Chinese cabbage, mustard greens, broccoli, bok choy and tofu. Calcium is an essential mineral with a wide range of biological roles. Calcium exists in bone primarily in the form of hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2).
Hydroxyapatite accounts for approximately 40 percent of bone weight. The skeleton has a structural requisite and acts as a storehouse for calcium. Apart from being a major component of bones and teeth, calcium supports normal muscle contraction, nerve health, heart rhythms, blood coagulation, glandular secretion, energy production and immune system function.*
Sufficient daily calcium intake is necessary for maintaining optimal bone density, healthy bones and teeth and has been shown to ease the discomfort of PMS in women. When the body does not get enough calcium per day, it draws calcium from your bones.
The amount of calcium in the blood is regulated by PTH (parathyroid hormone). High levels of calcium in the body correlate with normal cardiovascular health and normal cholesterol levels. In the American Dietetic Association Journal, a study revealed that calcium helped middle-aged women to maintain healthy weight levels.*
Magnesium 200 mg (Oxide, Carbonate)
Foods rich in magnesium include unpolished grains, nuts and green vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are potent sources of magnesium because of their chlorophyll content. Meats, starches, dairy products and refined and processed foods contain low amounts of magnesium. The average daily magnesium intake in the U.S. for males nine years and older is estimated to be about 323 milligrams; for females nine years and older, it is estimated to be around 228 milligrams. Recent research shows that our diets are magnesium deficient.
Magnesium is a component of the mineralized part of bone and supports the normal metabolism of potassium and calcium in adults. It helps maintain normal levels of potassium, phosphorus, calcium, adrenaline and insulin. It also supports the normal transport of calcium inside the cell for utilization. Magnesium promotes the normal functioning of muscle and nervous tissue and the normal synthesis of all proteins, nucleic acids, nucleotides, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, lipids and carbohydrates. Magnesium helps combat oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
Manganese 1 mg (Sulfate)
Manganese is a mineral found in large quantities in both plant and animal matter. The most valuable dietary sources of manganese include whole grains, nuts, leafy vegetables and teas. Manganese is concentrated in the bran of grains, which is often removed during processing.
Only trace amounts of this element can be found in human tissue. Manganese is predominantly stored in the bones, liver, kidney and pancreas. It supports the normal formation of connective tissue, bones, blood-clotting factors and sex hormones. It supports normal fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption and blood sugar regulation. Manganese also promotes normal brain and nerve function.
Manganese is a component of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Antioxidants scavenge free radicals that can cause premature aging and oxidative stress to the body. These particles occur naturally in the body but can possibly contribute to the aging process. Antioxidants such as MnSOD can neutralize free radicals.
Some experts estimate that as many as 37 percent of Americans do not get the recommended daily amounts of manganese in their diet. This may be due to the fact that whole grains are a major source of dietary manganese, and many Americans consume refined grains more often than whole grains. Refined grains provide half the amount of manganese as whole grains.
Vitamin C 58 mg (Ascorbic Acid)
The best food sources of vitamin C include all citrus fruits (oranges, grapefruit, lemons and tangerines), strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, peppers and cantaloupe. Vitamin C is a "fragile" vitamin and can be easily destroyed by cooking or exposure of food to oxygen.
Vitamin C promotes a vitamin "sparing" effect, supporting your body’s ability to utilize multiple vitamins and minerals such as thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, B12, retinaldehyde and alpha-tocopherol and the mineral calcium. It's also a cofactor or supporter in the normal metabolism of folic acid, some amino acids and hormones. Being an effective antioxidant, it also supports iron absorption from the small intestine. Vitamin C supports vitamin E in cell membranes. It supports the normal synthesis of collagen. Vitamin C supports cardiovascular health, normal cholesterol levels and supports a healthy immune system.
Vitamin D3 25 mcg (Cholecalciferol)
Regular sunlight exposure is the main way that most humans get their vitamin D. Food sources of vitamin D include vitamin D-fortified milk (100 IU per cup), cod liver oil and fatty fish such as salmon, and small amounts are found in egg yolks and liver.
Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and supports the production of several proteins involved in calcium absorption and storage. Vitamin D works with calcium to promote strong, hard bones. It supports normal transport of calcium out of the osteoblasts into the extra-cellular fluid and in the kidneys. It also promotes normal calcium and phosphate re-uptake through the renal tubules and intestinal epithelium. It supports normal skin cell growth and promotes normal producing of insulin by the pancreas.
Sodium 10 mg (bicarbonate)
To combat fatigue, athletes in sprint-type sports take a form of sodium bicarbonate. During very intense exercise, lactic acid accumulation in the muscle cells can lead to premature fatigue and may reduce athletic performance. Sodium bicarbonate also improves endurance performance.
Potassium 220 mg (Bicarbonate, Citrate)
Potassium is an electrolyte stored in the muscles. Foods rich in potassium include bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, avocado, raw spinach, cabbage and celery. Potassium is an essential macromineral that helps maintain fluid balance in the body. It also plays a role in a wide variety of biochemical and physiological processes. Among other things, potassium supports the normal transmission of nerve impulses, contraction of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle, production of energy, synthesis of nucleic acids, maintenance of intracellular tonicity and maintenance of normal blood pressure.
In 1928, it was first suggested that high potassium intake could help maintain cardiovascular health. Potassium supports normal muscle relaxation and insulin release. It also promotes glycogen and protein synthesis. Potassium is an electrolyte that promotes normal heartbeat. Potassium is important in releasing energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates during metabolism. Potassium supports the body’s ability to regulate water balance, recover from exercise and eliminate wastes.