Coenzyme Q10 (100 mg)
Coenzyme Q10 belongs to a family of substances called ubiquinones and is a water-insoluble, wax-like substance, that is part of the respiratory chain. It is synthesized in the cells, and is involved in electron transport and energy production in mitochondria. In the cellular system, it functions to generate energy from oxygen, in the form of ATP, for bodily processes. CoQ10 also exhibits activity as a free radical scavenger and an antioxidant. The antioxidant activity in the mitochondria and cell membranes protects against peroxidation of lipid membranes. Combining CoQ10 with vitamin E generates a synergistic antioxidant effect on lipoprotein and spares the vitamin E.
Coenzyme Q10 can be found in spinach, broccoli, nuts, meats and fish. In the body, it is found in the highest concentration in the cells of the heart, liver, kidney and pancreas. Supplementation of CoQ10 might be beneficial mostly to adults, because the levels of it in the body tend to peak around the age of twenty, and then decline with age. The affects of supplementation with CoQ10 have shown to be especially helpful in maintaining heart health.
Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) 134 mg
Since vitamin E is one of the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidants in the body, it helps protect cell membranes from the effects of free radicals. High intake of vitamin E have been found support a healthy heart. Vegetable oils, margarine, nuts, seeds, avocados, wheat germ, and safflower oil are all good food sources of vitamin E. Vitamin E is linked to a healthy heart, enhancement of immune system function and support of healing.
Lipase (5 mg)
Lipase is a fat-digesting enzyme that supports the body's ability to break down dietary fats into an absorbable form. It is a water-soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in water-insoluble, lipid substrates. Lipase, such as human pancreatic lipase, support the conversion of triglyceride substrates found in oils from food to monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Lipases are ubiquitous in living organisms, and most are built on an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and employ a chymotrypsin-like hydrolysis mechanism involving a serine nucleophile, an acid residue and a histidine. Some lipases also work within the interior spaces of living cells to promote the normal degradtion of lipids.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 3 mg
Vitamin B2, also known as Riboflavin, is a water soluble vitamin that's primary function is as a coenzyme to support metabolic processes in the body. It promotes healthy red cell formation, nervous system function and also acts as an antioxidant. Another key function of the vitamin is in the production of energy, where it acts as part of the electron transport chain that produces cellular energy. In the mitochondrial electron transport chain, vitamin B2 is an intermediate hydrogen acceptor of foodstuffs, and then passes the electrons onto the cytochrome system, where the cellular energy is produced.
Requirements for vitamin B2 are associated with calorie intake, because with an increase food intake your body also needs an increase of vitamin B2 to carry out the metabolic processes that will convert the food into usable energy. Nutritional inaccuracy is a common cause of vitamin B2 deficiency, which can occur in the elderly. Foods that are rich in the vitamin B2 are organ meats, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt, leafy, green vegetables, and whole grains.
Potassium (115 mg)
Potassium, in the body, is classified as an electrolyte and is involved in electrical and cellular functions in the body. It promotes normal water balance, levels of acidity, and maintenance of blood pressure, transmission of nerve impulses, digestion, muscle contraction and heartbeat. Potassium can be found in foods, which help to maintain the body's internal balance of fluids and chemicals. Some potassium-enriched foods are fruits, vegetables and legumes, which are all commonly recommended for optimal heart health.
Sodium (bicarbonate) 68 mg
To combat fatigue, athletes in sprint-type sports take a form of sodium bicarbonate. During very intense exercise, lactic acid accumulation in the muscle cells can lead to premature fatigue and may reduce athletic performance. Sodium bicarbonate also improves endurance performance.
Calcium (Sulfate) 29 mg
The highest concentration of calcium is found in milk. Other foods rich in calcium include vegetables such as collard greens, Chinese cabbage, mustard greens, broccoli, bok choy and tofu. Calcium is an essential mineral with a wide range of biological roles. Calcium exists in bone primarily in the form of hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2).
Hydroxyapatite accounts for approximately 40 percent of bone weight. The skeleton has a structural requisite and acts as a storehouse for calcium. Apart from being a major component of bones and teeth, calcium supports normal muscle contraction, nerve health, heart rhythms, blood coagulation, glandular secretion, energy production and immune system function.*
Sufficient daily calcium intake is necessary for maintaining optimal bone density, healthy bones and teeth and has been shown to ease the discomfort of PMS in women. When the body does not get enough calcium per day, it draws calcium from your bones.
The amount of calcium in the blood is regulated by PTH (parathyroid hormone). High levels of calcium in the body correlate with normal cardiovascular health and normal cholesterol levels. In the American Dietetic Association Journal, a study revealed that calcium helped middle-aged women to maintain healthy weight levels.